Under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cth) (EPBC Act), an action is defined as a project; a development; an undertaking; an activity; or an alteration to one of those things.
An action is not the granting of a government approval. For example the need for an export licence, or the provision of Commonwealth funding does not itself trigger the operation of the Act. This distinguishes the arrangements under the EPBC Act from earlier Commonwealth controls which were often targeted at funding or approval mechanisms to trigger environmental assessment.
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